Yang, Elaine Chiao Ling & Vikneswaran Nair
Since the 9/11 attack in 2001, a number of major tragedies, including the SARS outbreak, the Bali bombings, and the Asian tsunami, have swept the tourism industry across the globe. The impact of these crises was unprecedented and thus, it raises the necessity to review the existing risk literature in tourism. This paper reviews the multi-dimensional concept of risk in tourism by analyzing 46 selected articles following the guidelines of content analysis. The findings are categorized into four broad meaning themes: (1) the concept of risk, safety and security; (2) the research trend of risk in tourism; (3) the definitions and antecedents of perceived risk; and (4) risk as a positive element. Based on the analysis, a framework is proposed for future research. The originality of this study lies in its attempt to conceptualize a comprehensive framework of risk perception in tourism as the existing literature tends to be empirically skewed, resulting in theoretical frameworks underused or applied in a fragmented way.
Key words: Risk, perceived risk, safety, security, tourism